Saturday 7 July
The remains of a castle were investigated (N120317). A three-storey tower stands on top of a rock. There is a good doorway with pecked decoration. A straight mural stairway leads to first floor level. There is a murder-hole above the hallway at the bottom of the stairs. Some conservation work has been carried out (concreting) and there is some relatively modern buttressing. Remains of a bawn wall and gatehouse are visible. The remains of a second tower (N120314) were noted in passing.
The scant ivy-covered remains of a castle were noted in passing (N032008). The ivy-covered remains of a castle (N006002) were inspected from the roadside and photographed. The remains are of a large rectangular tower with three walls still remaining and a small annexe on the south side. The tower stands to about 2.5 storeys. The castle at R985956 consists of a massive bawn with some defensive loops and rounded corners. The interior was not inspected.
The castle at R898936 survives to about four storeys but one wall is almost completely gone. The spiral stairway in the corner is intact to first floor level where one of the doorways has a hinge-stone. There is also a slop-stone at this level. There is a lot of pecked decoration at the doorways and windows. The castle is well provided with defensive loops at first and second levels and there is an ornate loop at third level. The windows at the top floor are larger. The ivy-covered ruins of a church were noted in passing (R895869).The remains of a castle were photographed (R858847). Only half of the tower remains showing a cross-section. The ivy-covered remains of a church were noted (R858843).
Beside the road at Mungret (R545540) are the remains of a rectangular church with high-pitched gables and lintelled west doorway. There is a small round-headed east window. Nearby (R544538) are the substantial remains of a large nave and chancel church with a tall slim tower at the west end. Just across the road are the scant remains of a small rectangular church.
The remains of Carrigogonnell Castle (R489553) were inspected. There are substantial remains of a large keep and bawn on top of a rock. It is greatly ruined and much overgrown with ivy.
Two castles were noted in passing. Only one wall remains of one (R474522). The other (R475528) is a low ivy-covered tower. Dromore Castle (R436544) was photographed from a distance. It is a mid-19th century structure modelled on the ruins at St Patrickís Rock, Cashel. The ivy-covered ruin of a tower (R435550) was noted in passing. To the south-west of Pallaskerry, on a rocky mound (R411541), is a low, ivy-covered ruin of a castle.
Askeaton Friary (R342508) was visited. There are substantial remains of a church and other buildings. The church has some fine windows. It has two triple sedilias, side by side, and a tomb niche. The cloister is intact (reconstructed). There are a number of rooms and the buildings are on several levels with connecting stairways. There are very few carved stones visible (cloister, door to church, tomb niche). The friary is beside a large derelict mill complex. Askeaton Castle (R342502) is close to the river. Beside it is a rectangular ruin, possibly a church.
Dysert Castle (R287507) was photographed from the roadside. It is a square tower-house with good base-batter and a corner tower projecting beyond the level on one wall.
Rapid progress was made to Castlemaine and southwards. Killagha Priory (Q816012) is a rectangular church with a very fine east window and a good double sedilia. On the south wall are some traces (stairway, etc.) of other buildings.
Saturday 8 July
The first stop was at Minnard Castle (V553990), a massive square keep on a rocky promontory. One wall is almost entirely missing and two of the remaining walls are split. There is no stairway from the ground floor but there are traces of a spiral stairway leading from the first floor to the higher levels. There is a latrine chute leading from two levels and a fireplace on the first floor. There are some good defensive loops. The building is unsafe and was not explored thoroughly.
Gallarus Oratory (Q395048) was visited. It is a boat-shaped building with a lintelled doorway with inclined jambs and a small round-headed window. Beside it is a cross-inscribed stone. WNW of the oratory is a castle (Q390050). One wall is partly ruined and no doorway is visible. The ruins of a stairway may be traced to first floor level. Some reconstruction work blocks the stairway to the upper levels.
A collection of antiquities at Kilmalkedar was inspected (Q403062). Here is a nave and chancel church with antae and finials. There is a good decorated Romanesque doorway and chancel arch. On the inside of the walls of the nave is a blind arcade. Beside the chancel arch is the Alphabet Stone, a cross-pillar with inscribed alphabet. In the graveyard is a large cross with a little decoration, an Ogham stone with a hole in it and a sundial with decoration on both sides. There is also a bullaun-stone in use as a grave marker.
Reask Monastic Site (Q367044) was the next place visited. A cashel wall encloses the remains of a number of circular and rectangular buildings. There is a slab with an elaborate cross carved on it and some smaller cross-slabs.
Rahinnane Castle (Q368017) is a large ruinous rectangular tower inside a massive circular earthwork. There is a huge bank and ditch approximately 9m deep. More than half the outer walls of the castle remain. The interior is almost entirely gone but some short flights of mural stairway remain and there are traces of vaulting at second floor level. The walls of the second floor room have a blind arcade and there are the remains of two corner turrets.
After much searching a collection of Ogham stones was found at Ballintaggart (V464996). The stones are inside a circular enclosure and are all lying on the ground. They are cigar-shaped and some of them have inscribed crosses.
A viaduct of the Tralee and Dingle Railway was photographed (Q520012). Four stone, brick-lined arches flank (3 & 1) two steel girder spans. A wedge-grave at Maumnahaltora (Q679066) was inspected. It has a well-defined chamber with a capstone. It is made of large flat slabs and a section of outer walling is visible. Nearby is another wedge-grave. There is no capstone but the chamber is well-defined. The antechamber is less intact but there is a good facade and remains of outer walling. The grave is much overgrown.
Large sections of railway embankment and trackbed were noted alongside the main road from Anascaul to Tralee and a viaduct was noted east of Camp.
At Kilshannig, inside the church ruin (Q625195), is a pillar-stone with inscribed crosses. A large standing-stone (Q619188) was noted in passing. A large windmill tower was noted at Blennerville (Q813129).
Monday 9 July
After some searching a group of Ogham stones at Kilcoolaght East (V805927) was located. There are six stones inside a railed enclosure in the middle of a field. Some of the stones are broken and all appear to be of red sandstone.
The Ogham stones at Dunloe were inspected (V879907). A group of eight stones has been re-erected at the roadside. They have good sharp edges and the inscriptions are very clear.
Aghadoe Church and Round Tower were visited (V935926). The doorway to the church is in the decorated Romanesque style, with a three-order arch, the innermost of which is plain. There are some round-headed windows in this half of the church and some pointed windows in the other half. The stump of the Round Tower is about 6m high. South of the church is the round castle of Parkavonear (V934924). About two storeys remain. A mural stairway rises to the first floor where there is a fireplace. The internal diameter is about 5m and the external circumference is about 30m.
Muckross Franciscan Friary (V975870) was visited next. The friary is almost intact, apart from the roof. It has a compact cloister with a large yew tree in the centre. There are many vaulted rooms. The tower, which may be climbed about halfway, is shorter and thicker than in most Franciscan Friaries. The church has a good piscina and sedilia.
Rapid progress was made southwards through Kenmare and into Co Cork where, in Ardgroom Outward (V708554), a stone circle was examined. There are nine stones with one outlier, which is a large, tapered slab.
Tuesday 10 July
The first stop was at Ardfert Cathedral (Q785212). This large building is mainly of 13th century date but there are fragments of 12th century work. This includes a Romanesque doorway and blind arcade. Inside the church are two episcopal effigies and the remains of a sedilia in the south wall. Close by, to the north-west, is Temple na Hoe, a Romanesque nave and chancel church, now minus the chancel. It has a good decorated chancel arch and doorway and a decorated window in the south wall. There is a great deal of decoration (much weathered) around the eaves and on the corners of the gables. Beyond this church is Temple na Griffin, a 15th century church, named after the entwined beasts depicted on a carved panel inside. Near the entrance to the churchyard is a poor example of an Ogham stone.
At Ardfert Franciscan Friary (Q791212) there are remains of a church and cloister. At the west end of the church is a large residential tower that may be climbed by a mural stairway. The stairway is of straight flights in the lower storeys but changes to a spiral stairway in the corner of the upper storeys. The church has five lancet windows in the east wall and a number of tomb niches with little or no decoration. The only decorated stone visible is of a cherub on the outside of the tower near the base.
Rattoo Round Tower (Q879335) was inspected. The tower is complete. The round-headed doorway has a raised moulding above it and the windows at the top may also have some decoration. Just beside the tower are the remains of a small plain church. It was built in the 15th century but a stone set in the wall just beside the doorway is dated 1666 and has some masonís marks. Close by (Q882336) is a small church with a good three-light window but little else of interest.
A fragment of a castle was photographed at Ballybunnion (Q862412). Only one wall remains. Another castle fragment was noted at Doon Point (Q863433). A small rath was inspected (Q888477). It is about 20m diameter. The bank is broken in several places and there is no trace of an outer bank and ditch. Nearby are two standing-stones, 1.5 to 2m high. One of them is more than 1m broad.
Carrickafoyle Castle (Q988475) was visited. It is a large rectangular tower one wall of which is almost completely removed. It is five storeys high with vaulting at the second and fourth storeys. The broad spiral stairway in the corner is intact to roof level. There are remains of fireplaces and a number of small rooms leading off the stairway. There are some traces of battlements and substantial remains of a bawn. Nearby is a small ruined church.
Lislaughtin Franciscan Friary (R005461) was visited. There are extensive remains of a church and other buildings. There is a good window, a triple sedilia and some tomb niches with a little bit of decoration. One of the small windows has good decoration on the outside. The position of the cloister is clear but none of the covered cloister walk remains. Rapid progress was made to Adare, Co Limerick, where the Franciscan Friary (R47446) and castle (R471468) were photographed from the roadside.
Wednesday 11 July
The stone fort, Cahergall (V448805) has remains of a stone building inside and stairways leading to the top of the wall which is partly demolished. Another stone fort, Lecanabuile (V446806) is visible from this site. This fort is more complete and has within it remains of a number of buildings. These include a rectangular building attached to a circular building within which is the opening to a souterrain. The souterrain leads to a mural chamber, via a drop-hole creep and then outside the wall. In the opposite wall of the fort, close to the entrance, is another chamber, about 4m long, with a very low roof. Another cashel, Cathair na gCat (V446812) was viewed from the roadside.
A castle (Ballycarbery) (V447797) was inspected. The remains of a large rectangular keep are set within a fragment of a bawn. The keep is about three times the size of an average tower-house and about half of it remains. The three large rooms at first floor level have vaulted ceilings. Fragments of a straight mural stairway rise to above first floor level and there is a spiral stairway in the opposite corner. There is a flanking tower at one corner. The remains of windows at second floor level have an ecclesiastical appearance and may indicate the presence of a chapel. The bawn wall is thick and one section has a mural stairway.
Rapid progress was made to Staigue Fort (V611633). The wall of this large stone fort is 4m thick and 5m high in places. A series of X-shaped stairways on the inside lead to the top of the wall. There are two mural chambers. Derrynane Ogham Stone (V537588) is about 2m high and has a poor inscription.
A wedge-grave in Coomatloukane (V506596) was investigated. The grave is greatly overgrown but seen to be set at the edge of a low cairn. Within the cairn are a number of structures which may be burial cists and traces of the kerb are visible. An alignment (Eightercua) of four standing-stones about 150cm to 250cm high was investigated (V512647). Three more stones close to the alignment seem to form a burial chamber. A number of other stones may form part of a stone circle.
The wedge-grave in Coom (V405659) was visited. The chamber, which is about 2m long, is capped by a single slab about 1m wide. The antechamber is of similar size and is flanked by three slabs on either side.
A fragment of a castle was noted (V433655) at the waterís edge at Ballinskelligs. The wedge-grave in Meelagulleen (V443681) was noted in passing. Another wedge-grave in Cool East (V376758) was also noted in passing.
Thursday 12 July
Rapid progress was made into County Cork. Kanturk Castle (R383018) was inspected. It is a large rectangular house with four massive flanking towers. There are a number of good mullioned and transomed windows in the upper storeys with defensive slits at ground floor level. The corbels for the battlements are in place. The main entrance is at first floor level and has an ornate doorway. Inside are a number of fireplaces with good intact chimneys. Each floor level is defined on the outside by a string course.
Liscarroll Castle (R452125) has a large rectangular gatehouse set in a massive bawn with round corner towers. The remains of a castle (R505062), on a rocky outcrop, were noted in passing.
Ballybeg Augustinian Friary (R542078) was visited. Only some fragments of the church and the lower storeys of the tower remain. A good spiral stairway leads to the present roof level which is just above the tower crossing. Two fine lancet windows have been inserted in the tower. There is a good residential tower to the west of the church. This has a good spiral stairway, a vaulted room at first floor level and a smaller vaulted room at second floor level. South-east of the church is a well-preserved dove-cot housed in a circular tower. It has a fine corbelled roof and roosting space for about 300 birds.
Ballyclogh Castle (R493022) is a tower-house with square bartizans at opposite corners. There is an entrance at ground level and a second entrance at first floor level reached by an external stairway. The floors appear to be in place but are badly damaged. The spiral stairway seems to be intact. The building appears to be in use as a store and the interior was not investigated closely. The interior walls are plastered and the castle seems to have been inhabited until modern times. There are good chimneys and some mullioned windows. The ceiling of the ground floor room is vaulted.
Lohort Castle (R465015) was viewed from a distance. It seems to be a tower-house with chimneys and battlements on three sides. Drishane Castle (W283919) is a tower-house with later additions. It has some fine slit windows and a good double-light window with decorated hood featuring two masks at top floor level. A small tower rises above roof level in one corner. A castle was photographed at W264876. It is a square tower with two wall bartizans, one of which is complete, the other fragmentary. None of the worked stone at the windows or doorway remains.
Friday 13 July
The first stop was at Kilmalkedar, St Brendanís House (Q404063), a two-storey medieval house, probably a priestís dwelling. Caherdargan (Q399056) was visited. It is a cashel, within which are the remains of six circular huts. One of the huts is separate from the rest; three huts are joined together with a common entrance; another hut shares a wall with these three; the other hut has its own entrance but is connected by a wall to the cluster of four. Within the largest of the huts is a souterrain, about 5m long and very low.
Dunbeg Promontory Fort (V351972) was inspected. It has at least four outer defensive banks of stone and earth. Inside these is a strong, stone wall with a lintelled entrance and a mural chamber. There are remains of a circular house within the fort. A souterrain, about 15m long, leads from the entrance of the fort to the outer defences. The original entrance to the souterrain is not clear but it may be entered through a hole in the roof. The roof lintels are uncovered and form part of the pathway into the fort.
Rapid progress was made to Ballymalis Castle (V840939). This is a tower-house with wall bartizans at opposite corners and a good chimney. There are a number of fireplaces inside and a spiral stairway ascends to roof level. There are no floors intact. The top room has two three-light windows, one of which has good decoration on the outside. On the inside of these windows is a large round-headed recess. A great deal of conservation work has been carried out on the castle and no attempt has been made to disguise this. There is a lot of concrete in evidence.
Saturday 14 July
Rapid progress was made eastwards. Bridgetown Priory was visited (W693997). It is ruinous but undergoing conservation at present. There is a large tomb niche in the church and some good lancet windows here and elsewhere. There is a good covered walkway. At one end of the church is a tower and there is another smaller tower separate from the other buildings. North of the priory (W693999) is a large railway viaduct from the Mallow-Fermoy line, closed in 1967. Castletownroche Castle (R685023) was noted in passing. It is a tower-house with later additions.
Labbacallee wedge-grave (R772026) was inspected. It is a large grave with all its capstones in place, one of them being about 3m long. The total length of the grave is about 12m and it has traces of a kerb on one side.
Lismore Cathedral (X048987) has a good box-tomb with weepers and a crucifixion. There is also a good collection of early carved stones.
Rapid progress was made towards New Ross. Near Campile, Dunbrody Abbey (S709148) was visited. There are remains of a church and other buildings. The church has some fine lancet windows. There are a number of small chapels leading off the transept and the remains of an aisle arcade on the south side of the nave. There is a good two-light window with a decorated hood above the north aisle arcade. The remains of the west doorway (now blocked) has two much-weathered masks. A spiral stairway leads to the top of the church walls where access may be gained to the tower. A straight mural stairway leads to the top of the tower. Across the road (S714148) is Dunbrody Castle. The remains of a rectangular tower are set inside a large bawn with round corner towers.
Slade Castle (X746985) is a tower-house with a later house attached. It is inaccessible but appears to be fairly complete. The crenellations are intact and vaulted rooms and stairways are visible through the doorway. Close to the castle are a number of low buildings with vaulted ceilings. Kilcloggan Castle (S760045) was photographed from the roadside.
St Maryís Church, New Ross (S722277) was inspected. The present Church of Ireland occupies the site of the nave and crossing but the transepts and chancel of the old church remain. Only the south transept is open to inspection. There is a tomb niche and a piscina in the chancel and a number of good lancet windows throughout. There is a good collection of medieval tombstones.
Sunday 15 July
Rathmacknee Castle (T031140) is a good tower-house set at one corner of a bawn. The bawn is almost complete and has a machicolation over the gateway and a round bartizan at one corner. The wall-walk which is intact on two sides may be reached by a flight of steps. The tower rises to five storeys. The ceiling of the first floor room is vaulted. There is a murder-hole over the doorway. The top of the hole seems to come from above first floor level but this is not clear. There is a secret chamber, entered from second floor level through a hole in the floor of a small mural chamber. A good latrine chute leads from a garderobe at this level. A straight mural stairway rises to roof level. The roof walk is intact and three corner towers rise above the roof level.
A castle (T063070) was inspected from the roadside. It is a good tower-house to which a much later house has been attached, obscuring the doorway. The tower is about five storeys high with narrow defensive slits and a small turret at one corner. A small fragment of another castle (T072073) was noted in passing.
Tacumshin Windmill (T076073) was visited. It is a small windmill with a thatched roof and a long tail-pole with wheel.
A castle (T107074) was investigated. It is a tower-house, the doorway of which has been obscured by a modern building. There are remains of a bawn and a gateway, above which is a room with a murder-hole and remains of a machicolation. North of this is a fragment of a small tower (T107075) with a good cross-shaped defensive loop. A small fragment of a castle (T111048) was noted. It is ivy-covered, about two storeys high and attached to the ruins of a much later house.
A good tower-house (Clogheast)(T120055) was inspected. It stands to full height, with good crenellations and a small turret at one corner rising above roof level. There are ruins of a much later house attached and a machicolation over the doorway. It is not possible to enter the building but it seems that the lower floors are intact. There are a number of defensive loops and only one larger window. The castle stands at the corner of a modern farmyard with a dried-up well which uses a millstone as a cover.
The tower-house at T036078 stands to full height and has a machicolation over the doorway. It is attached to a much later house. The tower-house at T004056 has been restored and renovated. It is now inhabited. Ballyteige Castle (S967043) is a tower-house with good crenellations and a small corner turret. A corner tower of a bawn stands close by.
Coolhull Castle (S895098) appears as a slim tower with a lower house attached. There are good crenellations in both sections. Inside the main building is a good fireplace at first floor level. The spiral stairway within the tower may be seen but the tower is not accessible.
Daneís Castle S865115) was viewed from the roadside. It appears to be a tower-house with most of the top storey missing. A castle at S853117 was noted in passing. It is surrounded by trees and not enough can be seen to determine the condition of the building. A fragment of another castle was noted at S879122. Only portions of two walls remain. A castle was noted in the distance at S879131. It appears to be a tower-house and part of a farm complex.
Near Wellington Bridge (S844128) a collection of buildings was viewed from across the river. This includes a church with a large tower and three or four other buildings which may be tower-houses. This is Clonmines. At S845133 is a small ruined church with a small bullaun-stone beside the blocked doorway.
Tintern Abbey (S795100) was investigated. It is greatly ruined and later alterations include fortifications. There are some good carved masks on the outside wall of the chancel. The aisles and the north transept are completely removed. The south transept is roofed and a number of lancet windows, blocked and altered, may be seen. A long underground passage leads from the south to the south aisle arcade. South-east of the abbey is the ruin of a small church with a good 16th century memorial slab. At one end of the bridge is a tower with a lime-kiln at the base.
A castle (S817143) was noted. About two storeys remain of a square tower greatly overgrown with ivy. Rathumney Castle (S768164) was visited. It is a small 13/14th century hall. Only three walls remain with some windows and wall recesses.
Monday 16 July
The castle at S826221 is a tiny fragment, greatly overgrown. Another castle fragment was noted at S888195. Taghmon Castle (S916196) is a tower-house of about five storeys with remains of bartizans at opposite corners. There are fragments of a machicolation over the doorway which is partially blocked.
A castle (S940188) was photographed from the roadside. It is a small tower about four storeys high. Another castle of similar size was noted (S938122). It has a lower building attached and forms part of farm buildings. A third castle (S997101) is an ivy-covered tower with a small turret at one corner. It is attached to a modern house.
Killiane Castle (T059166) is a tower-house standing to full height with crenellations and a roof-walk. It is greatly altered inside but there are some original fireplaces in place. A brick-built fireplace rises from the corner of the second floor. The room above seems to have been used for grain drying and there is a grain chute leading downwards from this level. The first floor ceiling is vaulted and a good straight mural stairway leads to the roof. The tower sits at the edge of a bawn of which there are considerable remains. The gateway has a good machicolation and there are two corner flankers, one of which is round. The castle and bawn form part of a modern farmyard.
About half of the castle at S870284 remains. Part of the vaulted ground floor ceiling is in place and there are traces of mural chambers and a straight mural stairway to first floor level. There is a spiral stairway to the higher levels. There are some good defensive slits and small windows. The castle at S703251 was photographed at a distance. It has a chimney and stands to full height. The castle at S694237 was also photographed. It stands to full height and has some good crenellations. It is covered with ivy and forms part of a range of farm buildings. A small circular turret is all that remains of a castle at S725173. Two martello towers and a star-shaped fort were noted at Duncannon.
Tuesday 17 July
At Inistioge the present Church of Ireland building occupies and incorporates part of a medieval priory (S635380). Several fragments remain including a tower which is square at the bottom and octagonal at the top. There are also some good windows and a couple of fragments of early gravestones. There are two other old towers in the town.
At Clonamery (S659351) is an overgrown tower of a castle on a small mound beside the river. Close by (S659353) is a small ruined nave-and-chancel church with a lintelled doorway with inclined jambs. The lintel has a cross carved on it. Inside are a few early gravestones. The chancel has a small round-headed window.
At Knocktopher (S533370) is a fragment of a church. There are some sections of a wall with a window and most of a tower. Under the tower is a double-effigy tomb and some early carved stones. The tower is square at the bottom and octagonal at the top. The arch of the tower is Romanesque.
At Kilree (S496412) is the ruin of an early church with lintelled west doorway and antae. The plain round chancel arch has been remodelled as a pointed arch. The chancel is the same width as the nave and seems to be a later extension of the church since there are traces of antae on the east of the nave. Beside the church is a Round Tower with a damaged or remodelled top. In the field beside the church is a High Cross with bosses, key patterns, spirals and strapwork.
Kells Priory (S499433) was visited. It is a fortified priory divided into two wards. The lower ward contains the church and other buildings. The upper ward has five towers, some of them of tower-house dimensions, and many defensive slits. The gateway has a good machicolation. There is a second machicolation over a small opening farther along the wall.
St Maryís Church, Gowran (S633536) has a number of fine windows and many carved masks. Nearby is an unusual pump (or hydrant) (S632536). A castle was inspected (S632530). It is a tower-house standing to full height but without crenellations. It was viewed from the roadside and the entrance was not discovered. There are good defensive slits with fine windows at the upper storeys. At Dungarvan Church (S615487) is a fragment of a tomb cover with a double effigy in miniature.
A fragment of a castle (S615511) was noted in passing. It is about two storeys high with a vaulted roof and some defensive slits. The church at Ullard (S724480) was visited. It is a nave and chancel church with a decorated Romanesque doorway above which is a window and a carved panel. A later inserted doorway incorporates Romanesque fragments. The nave has some good round-headed windows. There is a crypt under the chancel and a stairway to the left of the altar presumably led to a tower. On the right of the altar is a piscina and a sedilia. Behind the church is a High Cross, reconstructed from fragments. The carvings include a crucifixion.
Graiguenamanagh Church (S709437) was visited. It is a restored Cistercian church with the effigy of an armoured knight inside. In the churchyard are two early crosses. A castle was noted beside the canal lock (S708433). It is a tower-house with one bartizan. It is greatly altered with large inserted windows.
A castle was noted in passing (S593113). A second castle was noted (S646344). It is a tower-house with large upper windows, slit lower windows and a machicolation over the doorway. It is overgrown with ivy and forms part of a house and farm complex.
Wednesday 18 July
Granagh Castle (S575144) was visited. A tower is set at the edge of a bawn beside the river. The bawn has round corner towers. The tower has some good defensive loops, some mullioned windows and an oriel window. The gateway has some pecked decoration.
Carrick-on-Suir castle (S405217) was viewed from the outside. There are two towers at the edge of a bawn. They have good mullioned windows and defensive loops. Attached to the castle is a fine Tudor mansion with a vast number of mullioned windows and many gables.
A tower-house (S350233) was photographed from the roadside. A second, inhabited tower-house (S298233) was also photographed. Burncourt Castle (R952181) was visited. It is a large multi-gabled house with many mullioned and transomed windows. There are remains of some fireplaces and a few defensive loops at ground level. It is a rectangular house with four square flanking wings. There are some traces of a bawn wall.
A castle was noted at S063188. There are three storeys of a tower, greatly damaged. A castle was photographed (S050196). The remains of a house are set in the corner of a fragmentary bawn with a round corner tower. The castle at Ardfinnan (S082178) appears to be a modernised tower-house with later additions. Ballindoney Castle (S104207) is a good tower-house with a damaged roof. There is a machicolation over the doorway. The castle at S118226 is a corner fragment of a tower standing to full height with a bartizan.
Athassel Augustinian Priory
(S010362) was visited. There are extensive remains inside a perimeter wall with a gatehouse. The church has a good west doorway, a good east window and some lancet windows. Inside the church are two high-relief effigies and a slab with incised figures. There are a number of carved stones at the doorways and some carved masks. There are some remains of the cloister arcade and a number of good vaulted rooms.
Thursday 19 July
A tower-house (S115491) was inspected. It is almost complete and has remains of bartizans and a latrine chute. Inside the door is a cross-shaped ventilator or spy-hole and above the doorway is a murder-hole. This seems to lead from the third storey. The stairway is partly blocked making access difficult and the upper storeys of the tower were not investigated. A number of narrow windows with slopstones can be seen from the outside and the top room has some two-light windows. The first floor has a vaulted ceiling and there are remains of wickerwork centering.
A round tower-house was noted (S088462). It has slit windows and two machicolations. A motte and bailey were noted (S057460). A tower-house was inspected (S057457). It is four storeys high. The outer doorway is missing but the inner doorway is intact. The murder-hole is blocked. A straight mural stairway leads to the higher levels but the bottom section is missing. The ceiling of the third storey is vaulted and there is a good latrine chute. The tower has defensive slits and larger windows as usual.
A fragment of a castle was noted in passing (S035519). Another fragment was inspected (S021562). There are about two storeys of a circular tower with only a fragment of the doorway in place. There is a latrine chute and a mural stairway. The ground floor room is rectangular with a vaulted ceiling. There is a murder-hole over the doorway. Another circular tower (R924468) was investigated. It stands to full height and has four machicolations. The ground floor and first floor rooms are rectangular, the upper room having a vaulted ceiling. A broad mural stairway leads to first floor level. A spiral stairway leads to the higher levels but is intact only as far as the second floor level. There is a fireplace and chimney stack at the top room. There are good defensive slits. There is possibly a murder-hole over the doorway but this is not clear. The roof is gabled and there are larger windows at the higher levels. A motte (R905431) with a circular bailey was noted in passing.
At Toureen Peakaun (S004285) is a ruin of a rectangular church with a good decorated window. There is a fine collection of early gravestone fragments in and around the church. Nearby is a holy well. At Ardane, St Berrihertís Kyle is a small oval enclosure (R947287). A large number of decorated stones have been built into the wall. These include the head of a High Cross, the base of which is nearby. There is a large bullaun in the cross-base. There is also a small bullaun-stone and some round stones (cursing stones?).
Fethard Town Walls (S209349) feature some good tower-houses and a machicolation. Fethard Augustinian Abbey (S211350) was visited. Most of the church is still in use.
The castle at S196390 was viewed from the roadside. It appears to be a tower-house with three gables intact. It stands to full height on three sides. There are no bartizans or machicolations visible. A castle was viewed from the roadside (S192458). More than half a tower-house stands to full height. The ceiling of the third storey is vaulted. The tower stands inside a fragment of a bawn which also has a house gable with a bartizan in one corner. The castle stands at the edge of a rocky outcrop. A railway station at Laffanbridge (S190467) was noted in passing.
Grallagh Castle (S153491) was visited. It is a four-storey tower-house with vaulting above the ground and second floors. There are some fireplaces and chimneys and good slit windows with slopstones. The top room has a blind arcade. There is a garderobe on the first floor. A short flight of steps leads from the fourth storey downwards to another garderobe. At the top of this flight is a hole leading to a lower level. This is apparently a secret room since no other entrance can be found. A good mural stairway leads to the top of the tower. There are bartizans at opposite corners and possibly two murder-holes inside the doorway. There is a short section of a bawn wall nearby.